The1971 Indo-Pakistani Warhad ended with the defeat ofPakistanat the hands of India.East Pakistandeclared itself to beindependent. It became a newsovereign statecalledBangladesh, to be ruled byBengalileaderShaikh Mujibur Rahman. Mujib had been a major personality in the events that had led to the war, having called for greater provincial autonomy and rights for what was then East Pakistan, only to be met with utter disapproval by the then military rulerYahya Khanand his West Pakistan-based political opponentZulfikar Ali Bhutto. Despite Mujib's having won the federal elections of 1970, both Yahya and Bhutto refused to let Mujib form thecentral government. The ensuing unrest gradually deteriorated intocivil war, and ultimately thesecessionof Bangladesh after the India-Pakistan War of 1971. India also played a large part in the independence of Bangladesh by arming and financing the separatist group Mukti Bahini which rebelled against the Pakistani State.Most importantly,it sent its troops into East Pakistan to aid the Bengali separatists in suppressing the Pakistan army.
Prime MinisterZulfikar Ali Bhuttosacked two provincial governments in quick succession, before launching a military operation in the region
The ethno-separatist rebellion of Balochistan,of the 1970s, the most threateningcivil disorderto a United Pakistan since Bangladesh's secession, now began. Surveying the political instability, Bhutto'scentral governmentsacked two provincial governments within six months, arrested the two chief ministers, two governors and forty-four MNAs and MPAs, obtained an order from theSupreme Courtbanning the NAP and charged everyone with high treason to be tried by a specially constituted Hyderabad Tribunal of handpicked judges. Following the allegeddiscovery of Iraqi arms in Islamabadin February 1973, Bhutto dissolved the Balochistan Provincial Assembly and infuriated Balochistan's political oligarchs.
In time, thenationalistinsurgency, which had been steadily gathering steam, now exploded into action, with widespreadcivil disobedienceand armed uprisings. Bhutto now sent in the army to maintain order and crush the insurgency. This essentially pitted the ethno-separatists against the capitalIslamabad. As casualties rose, the insurgency became a full-fledged armed struggle against thePakistan Army. The sporadic fighting between theinsurgencyand the army started in 1973 with the largest confrontation taking place in September 1974 when around 15,000 ethno-separatists fought the Pakistani Army and the Air Force. TheIranian military, fearing a spread of the greater ethnic resistance in Iran, also aided the Pakistani military.Among Iran's contribution were 30Huey cobraattack helicopters and $200 million in aid. The Pakistan government declared its belief in covert Indian intervention just like the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation.However India claimed that it was fearful of furtherbalkanizationof the subcontinent after Bangladesh and stated it had not interfered. After three days of fighting the separatists were running out ofammunitionand so withdrew by 1976.
The army had suffered more than 3,000 casualties in the fight while the rebels lost 5,000 people as of 1977.
Governor Rahimuddin's tenure also ushered in sustained development.Following theSoviet invasionof neighboringAfghanistanin 1979, Rahimuddin used the resultant foreign attention on Balochistan by introducing an externally financed development programme for the area.Forty million dollars (USD) were committed to the programme by the end of 1987, by which time Rahimuddin had resigned.He expedited the regulation ofPakistan Petroleum Limited, the exploration company charged with theSui gas field. He consolidated the then-contentious integration ofGwadarinto Balochistan, which had earlier been notified as a district in 1977. Addressing theprovince's literacy rate, the lowest in the country for both males and females,he administered the freeing up of resources towards education, created girls'incentive programs, and had several girls' schools built in theDera Bugti District. As part of his infrastructure schemes, he also forced his way in extending electricity to vast areas withsubsoilwater.