The State of Kalat was located between 25°1′ and 30°8′N. And 61°37′ and 69°22′E., with a total area of 11,593 square miles. It occupied the whole of the centre and south-west of the Province of Balochistan, with the exception of the indentation caused by the little State ofLas Bela. It was bounded on the west byIran; on the east by theBolan Pass, the Maxi and Bugti hills, andSindh; on the north by the Chagai and Quetta-Pishin Districts; and on the south by Las Bela and theArabian Sea. With the exception of the plains of Kharan, Kachhi, and Dasht in Makran, the country is wholly mountainous, the ranges being intersected here and there by long narrow valleys.
The principal mountains are the Central Brahui, Kirthar, Pab,Siahan, Central Makran and Makran Coast Ranges, which descend in elevation from about 10,000 to 1,200 feet. The drainage of the country is almost all carried off to the southward by the Nari,Mula,Hab, Porali,HingolandDashtrivers. The only large river draining northwards is the Rakhshan. The coast-line stretches for about 160 miles, from near Kalmat toGwadar Bay, and the chief port isPasni. Round Gwadar the country was in the possession of the Sultan of Muscat.
The state of Kalat was founded in 1638. The territories controlled by the state fluctuated over the centuries but eventually were established by treaties with theBritishAgentRobert Sandemanin the late 19th century. Parts of the state to the north and northeast were leased or ceded to form the province ofBritish Baluchistanwhich later gained the status of a Chief Commissioners province.
On 28 March 1948, the then Khan of Kalat acceded the kalat state to Pakistan in peaceful manner and went on to form theBaluchistan States Unionon 3 October 1952 with three neighbouring states. The state of Kalat ceased to exist on 14 October 1955 when the province ofWest Pakistanwas formed.
The rulers of Kalat held the title ofWalioriginally but in 1739 also took the title (Begler Begi)Khanusually shortened to Khan. The lastKhan of Kalat(Urdu:خان قلات) had the privilege of being the President of the Council of Rulers for the Baluchistan States Union.